Author Topic: Trehalose Glycolipids have Amazing Function  (Read 3817 times)

Offline JC Spencer

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Trehalose Glycolipids have Amazing Function
« Reply #1 on: December 28, 2009, 10:42:18 PM »
by J. C. Spencer

Trehalose is one of the sugar building blocks that creates great cellular communication.  Here is evidence that trehalose is the sugar used to build unique glycolipids.  Trehalose is the building block in a number of cell wall glycolipids.  Glycoproteins are more on the cell surface while glycolipids do most of their work in the cell wall and within the cell itself.

Sugars are the OPERATING SYSTEM (OS) of the body, processing DNA data, thought, and all cellular communication.  Glycomics, the science of sugars, may be thousands of times more complex than the genome project.  The eight Royal Sugars used to construct glycoprotein receptor sites that coat every healthy human cell were described by Robert K. Murray, M.D., PhD, in Harper’s Biochemistry first in 1996 and then in subsequent editions [and discussed in layman’s language in my e-textbook Expand Your Mind - Improve Your Brain, foreword by Dr. Murray ].  Our dear friend Dr. Rob, as we affectionately call him, is from Scotland and he will be glad to know some of the work you are about to read came out of the Lipid Analysis Unit of the Scottish Crop Research Institute in Dundee.

Ongoing glycoprotein and glycolipid research conducted around the world is getting us closer to understanding the different functions precipitated by the various natural designs.  Change one sugar form or fatty acid and you have a whole new functionality and potential health benefit.  Glycomics, the science of sugars, is indeed the future of medical science and healthcare.

One of the serendipitous facts about trehalose is not only that it has a hydration factor but that it is part of the construction of a surfactant that may help clean and extract waste from within the cells.  That function is discussed in this report which is restricted to natural biosynthesis of trehalose and glycolipids.

Trehalose first esterifies to form monomycolate.  Esterify is to form ester which is any of a class of organic compounds corresponding to the inorganic salts and is formed from an organic acid and an alcohol, usually with the elimination of water.  Mycolic acids are long fatty acids found in some the cell walls.  It is believed that monomycolate is the precursor to dimycolate.  We have earlier reported on the Trehalose Dimycolate Project where progress has been made on a drug for treating tuberculosis.  Trehalose 6,6’-dimycolate (TDM) is a primary immunostimulatory component of the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB).

Extra-cellular trehalose lipids contain succinic acid.  Succinic acid is a dicarboxylic acid occurring naturally in plant and animal tissues.  It plays a significant role in intermediary metabolism (Krebs cycle) in the body.  Krebs cycle (also called citric acid cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle) is a sequence process of enzymatic reaction which a two-carbon acetyl unit is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water to provide energy in the form of high-energy phosphate bonds.  The carboxylate anion, succinate, esters from succinic acid called alkyl succinates, powerful surfactants.

The citric acid cycle is the final common pathway for the oxidation to CO2 of fuel molecules provides intermediates for biosynthetic reactions and generates ATP by providing electrons to the electron transport chain.  The citric acid cycle results in a breakdown of glycose during glycolysis in the cytoplasm to fuel the mitochondrion.  You may view an interactive graphic of the Krebs cycle designed by John Kyrk at

The Krebs cycle is also known as the citric acid cycle because citric acid is the first sequenced product generated by this chemical conversion.  The foods you eat become the fuel supply for the citric acid cycle.  How well it processes that food and gets the nutrients to your cells determines your health.  The pH factor plays an important role.  You can raise your pH by eating less acidic foods, less soft drinks, and less bad sugars while eating more alkaline foods and drinks.  The alkaline effect on your body is based upon the mineral content of your food and the ash residue that remains after our foods are consumed.  Some foods leave an acid ash and other foods leave an alkaline buffer.  The foods that contain alkaline minerals leaving an alkaline buffer are all the foods that really are good for us including fresh vegetables and fruit and good sugars.  The foods that leave an acid ash include the bad sugars, alcohol, saturated fats, meats, and dairy.

A higher pH, a more alkaline body, is conducive to better cell function, better cell absorption, cellular communication via better glycolipids and glycoprotein receptor sites, and better health.

More research is needed and much of the activity of trehalose within the human body is yet to be determined.  The enzyme trehalase serves as a transporter where trehalose performs different functions.  Also, it appears that some of the trehalose is split into two glucose molecules over an extended time which support sustained energy.

For the whole report, go to