Trehalose can play a major role in bone, teeth, and stem cell production because of its ability to influence a negative charge. This research may help us better understand why trehalose is so beneficial. To bring materials into order or to cast them into disorder depends on the negative or positive charge. This gets into negative and positive ions and high or low pH. I discuss this at length in The Trehalose Handbook.
The research can be more clearly understood by the layman when you know the terms used in the science language. “The mesoporosity of microparticles spray dried from trehalose and nanoparticle hydroxyapatite depends on the ratio of nanoparticles to sugar and nanoparticle surface charge.”
Porous materials very in porous size from microporous with pore diameters of less than 2 nm and macroporous with pore diameters greater than 50 nm. Mesoporous category is in the middle. Mesoporous material can be disordered or ordered in a mesostructure. Hydroxyapatite makes up bone mineral and the matrix of teeth. It is hydroxyapatite that gives bones and teeth their rigidity. Hydroxyapatite molecules can crystalize (group together) to form microscopic clumps. When these crystals are deposited by disorder in or around joints, they can cause inflammation of the joints, tendons, and ligaments. This often develops into a painful chaos factor in shoulder rotator cuffs.